Ritual uses of Cissus quadrangularis (Vitaceae) among the Dghweɗe of the Gwoza Hills (NE Nigeria)


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Vavanz tsukwana is accessible to all Dghweɗe. Tsukwana is the word for a traditional "stock cube". I want to thank Thierry Otto and Eric de Garine for pointing out to me that this (image 31 to 34) is not a Cissus quadrangularis but a Ficus.