Pavel, Dominik and Glauning reached Lake Chad on the 2nd of May 1902 (Source: Oscar Zimmermann. Durch Busch und Steppe. Berlin 1909, page 206). Please click on the image for more details
The Germans established their colonial rule
in Mora, Maroua and Madagali beteen1901 and 1903. The colonial reports
of Dominik (1903) and Puttkamer (1904) show that they adopted their
views on the non-islamic population from the Wandala and Fulbe. The
‘pagan tribes’ (Heidenstaemme) were seen by them as threat for peace
and prosperity in the region. It was Zimmer- mann (1906) who became
critical of this view.
British rule of the western slopes of the
Northern Mandaras began only in 1922 (Kirk-Greene 1958 (1969) and lasted
till independence in 1961, following a referendum which made the Northern
Mandaras part of two nation states. Ethnographic literature during British
times is minimal. The annual reports to the League of Nations and UN
(1927-1961) give evidence that DOs requested unsuccessfully a governmental
anthropologist for an ethnographic survey of the Gwoza Hills.
French military administration between 1916
and 1920 covered the whole of the Northern Mandaras, but little is known
about their activities on the western slopes, for which the British
held a mandate from 1922 onwards. Apart from the British much of the
ethnographic survey work in the French Mandated Territory was published.
In 1935 the Société d’Etudes Camerounaises was founded and published
much of the research.
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