Funnel pots with small openings could not be found among the Mandara of Kirawa. However, the rings of iron chains found in the context of one DGB site gave me a lead. They were brought to the attention of Nicholas David and myself when we were surveying the DGB sites of northern Cameroon during the first field session 2001/2002 (see slideshow). At the time we were puzzled as to what this object might be. The Mafa were also unable to tell us what it was used for.

My informants in the Gwoza Hills recognised them from photos. They explained to me that they were worn diagonally from shoulder to waist by their fathers and grandfathers during ritual performances. Dughwede, Guduf and Glavda informants claimed that the Wandala of Kirawa were specialists in making them and that they preferably aquired them from them. This was confirmed to me in Kirawa.

This is the only physical link connecting the DGB complex with the peoples of the Gwoza Hills and the Wandala of Kirawa. However the absence of the two other possible links, like a concern with flat facades and funnel pots with constricted openings, can be explained by the historical fact that the Wandala converted to Islam in pre-colonial times. They do not perform ancestor rituals neither do they build in stone. Like any other ethnic groups of the plains they prefer daub as their main means of construction.

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DGB sites of northern Cameroon